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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Animal Models
Masayuki Mizui1 and George C. Tsokos2 Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA 2Division of Medical Sciences, Harvard Medical School; Division of Rheumatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Synonyms Lupus models; Lupus-prone mice Definition Certain animals, mostly mice, are prone to developing autoimmune manifestations and organ damage reminiscent of human SLE.

Immune System and Kidney
Brad H. Rovin1 and Samir V. Parikh2 1Division of Nephrology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA Definition The clinical hallmarks of immune-mediated kidney injury include the appearance of protein and red blood cells in the urine and, in severe cases, impaired kidney function manifested as a rise in serum creatinine or a fall in the glomer-ular filtration rate.

Autoimmunity and Inflammation in Diabetic Nephropathy
Tasma Harindhanavudhi1 and Michael Mauer2 ■`Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA 2Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Synonyms Diabetic kidney disease; Diabetic nephropathy Definition This entry reviews current understanding of the contribution of autoimmunity and inflammation to the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease.

Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells NFAT
Jose Aramburu and Cristina Lopez-Rodriguez Immunology unit, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain Synonyms NFAT; NF-AT; Nuclear factor of activated T cells Definition The name nuclear factor of activated T cells NFAT identifies a group of transcription factors characterized by a conserved DNA-binding domain, which is homologous to the Rel-like DNA-binding domain of NF-kB nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells proteins.

Lichen Planus
Sarika Ramachandran The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Synonyms Lichen planopilaris LPP; Lichen planus LP; Oral lichen planus OLP Definition Lichen planus is an inflammatory disease which can involve hair, skin, nails, and mucosa.

Stephanie Edelmann and Vigo Heissmeyer Institute of Molecular Immunology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany Synonyms C-Rel; NF-kB2 p52 and its precursor p100; Nuclear factor kB; NF-kB1 p50 and its precur­sor p105; RelA p65; RelB Definition NF-kB is a dimeric transcription factor complex active throughout all cell types.

Transgenic, Humanized, or Chimeric Mouse Models
Definitive analyses of the immunological mech­anisms involved in HBV or HCV pathogenesis required the development of easy-to-manipulate mouse models with a well-defined immune system. Thus far, a large amount of the cellular/ molecular pathogenic or antiviral mechanisms that may occur during viral hepatitis in man has been obtained in transgenic mice replicating HBV at high levels in their liver Guidotti et al. 1995.

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