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Cancer and Neuropathies
Bridget T. Carey, Efstathia Tzatha and Joshua Weaver Department of Neurology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Synonyms Immune-mediated neuropathy in cancer; Inflam­matory neuropathy associated with malignancy; Paraneoplastic neuropathy; Peripheral neuropathy in cancer; Polyneuropathy in cancer Definition Neuropathy Refers to the injury or dysfunction of the peripheral nerves.

Vasculitis and the Kidney
Steven Yew and David Jayne Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Synonyms Renal Definition Vasculitis is a pathological process defined by leukocyte invasion and fibrinoid necrosis of the vessel wall.

Structure of CD5
CD5 is a glycoprotein of molecular mass 67kDa when reduced, 58kDa when not reduced. It is a member of the type B "scavenger receptor cysteine-rich" SRCR superfamily, an ancient and highly conserved group that includes CD6, MARCO macrophage receptor with collagenous structure, Mac-2, M160 CD163, M130, and a family of molecules expressed on y8 T cells, called WC workshop cluster-1. In humans, CD6 is only 82kb distant from CD5 on the long arm of chromosome 11 11q13; the exon/intron organization of the human CD5 and CD6 genes is very similar, differing only in the size of intron 1 and the number of exons encoding their cyto-plasmic regions; the conserved structure of the two loci, in both mouse and human, supports the premise that the two genes resulted from dupli­cation of a primordial gene.

Neutrophilic Dermatoses: Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis
Gideon P. Smith1 and Andrew G. Franks Jr.2 1Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA 2Dermatology and Medicine Rheumatology, Skin Lupus and Autoimmune Connective Tissue Disease Section, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Synonyms Cutaneous small-vessel vasculitis; Cutaneous vasculitis; Hypersensitivity angiitis; Hypersensi-tivity vasculitis; Leukocytoclastic vasculitis; Small-vessel vasculitis; Vasculitis Definition Leukocytoclastic vasculitis is inflammation of the small blood vessels of the skin.

Surrogate Animal Models of Infection with Related Viruses
As mentioned earlier, the availability of animal species that can be experimentally manipulated and represent natural hosts of HBV-related hepadnaviruses has created opportunity for investigation throughout the years.

Polyarteritis Nodosa
Atul Khasnis and Leonard H. Calabrese Department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases, Section of Clinical Immunology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA Definition A systemic inflammatory disease characterized by necrotizing medium-vessel vasculitis.

Autoimmune Heart Disease: Animal Models
Urs Eriksson Department of Internal Medicine, GZO - Zurich Regional Health Center, Wetzikon, Switzerland Division of Cardioimmunology, Department of Cardiovascular Research, Institute of Physiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Definition Autoimmune heart disease defines any structural or functional alteration of heart tissue due to aberrant immune responses against cardiac self-antigens, which impairs the capacity of the heart to maintain sufficient cardiac output to meet metabolic demands of the body.



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