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Hair Loss in Lupus Erythematosus
M. J. Kristine Bunagan1, Nusrat Banka1 and Jerry Shapiro1,2 ■`Department of Dermatology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada 2The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Synonyms Alopecia in systemic disease; Discoid scarring alopecia; Hair loss in SLE; Lupus hair loss Definition The clinical presentation of lupus erythematosus LE may be confined to cutaneous disease or may involve various internal organs.

Activation of Adaptive Immunity in the Liver
The liver`s well-known ability to promote immune tolerance has evolved to prevent excessive immune responses to nutrients or commensals entering via the portal vein. Some pathogens, for example, malaria and hepatitis C virus, exploit the liver`s tolerogenic properties to evade effective immune responses and establish persistent infection.

Mixed Connective Tissue Disease MCTD
Eric L. Greidinger Division of Rheumatology, Miami VAMC and University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Synonyms Mixed connective tissue disease; Sharp`s syndrome Definition MCTD is an autoimmune syndrome in which high-titer autoantibodies to the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein anti-RNP are present along with overlapping clinical manifestations of lupus, scleroderma, and/or inflammatory myositis.

Proteinuric Kidney Diseases: Importance of Blood Pressure Control
Samir V. Parikh1, Lee A. Hebert1 and Brad H. Rovin2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA 2Division of Nephrology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA Synonyms Blood pressure; Chronic kidney disease; Glomer­ulonephritis; Hypertension; Proteinuria Definitions Hypertension is defined as blood pressure elevation to a level that places patients at risk for target organ damage including the kidneys, heart, and brain.

Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes
Rakesh K. Bakshi, Maureen A. Cox and Allan J. Zajac Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Synonyms CTL; Cytotoxic T lymphocytes; Killer T cell; Tc Definition Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are specialized subsets of differentiated T cells which have the functional capability to kill target cells expressing nonself antigens.

Rheumatoid Arthritis, Extra-articular Manifestations
Dimitrios A. Pappas and Joan M. Bathon Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Columbia University Medical Center College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA Synonyms RA complications; RA extra-articular features; RA extra-articular signs; Extra-articular involve­ment of RA; Nonarticular manifestations of RA, Systemic manifestations of RA Definition The term "extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis" refers to involvement with disease oftissues and organs outside the joints.

Without a full sleep you can not live a normal life. First, a person who sleeps less than seven hours, feels worse, as there is a disruption of the heart, stomach, intestine, and the process of metabolism.

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