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Autoantibodies to Endothelial Cells
Gemma D. Banham, Matthew D. Morgan and Caroline O. S. Savage Renal Immunobiology, School of Immunity and Infection, College of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK Synonyms AECAs; Anti-endothelial cell antibodies Definition Endothelial cells form a single cell layer lining of the luminal wall of blood vessels.

Complement Regulation in the Kidney
Daniel J. Birmingham Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA Definition The complement system maintains homeostasis by achieving a balance between complement acti­vation and complement regulation.

Nitric Oxide
David A. Lawrence Laboratory of Immunology, Wadsworth Center New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, USA Synonyms Endothelium-derived relaxing factor EDRF; Nitrogen monoxide; Nitrogen oxide; NO; Reactive nitrogen species Definition Nitric oxide NO is a radical compound formed when a single nitrogen is covalently bonded with a single oxygen N = O. Nitric oxide is produced endogenously from the catabolism of L-arginine by a nitric oxide synthase NOS.

Gestational Alloimmune Liver Disease
Peter F. Whitington Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Ann and Robert H Lurie Children`s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Synonyms Neonatal hemochromatosis Definition Gestational alloimmune liver disease GALD is a unique fetal liver disease that results from maternal alloimmunity against fetal hepatocytes.

Vasculitis: Henoch-Schonlein Purpura
Elizabeth Ang1 and Robert Sundel2 1Boston Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA 2Boston Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Synonyms Anaphylactoid purpura; Purpura rheumatic Definition Henoch-Schonlein Purpura HSP belongs to the group of diseases known as systemic or leukocytoclastic vasculitides.

Hair Loss in Lupus Erythematosus
M. J. Kristine Bunagan1, Nusrat Banka1 and Jerry Shapiro1,2 ■`Department of Dermatology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada 2The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Synonyms Alopecia in systemic disease; Discoid scarring alopecia; Hair loss in SLE; Lupus hair loss Definition The clinical presentation of lupus erythematosus LE may be confined to cutaneous disease or may involve various internal organs.

Activation of Adaptive Immunity in the Liver
The liver`s well-known ability to promote immune tolerance has evolved to prevent excessive immune responses to nutrients or commensals entering via the portal vein. Some pathogens, for example, malaria and hepatitis C virus, exploit the liver`s tolerogenic properties to evade effective immune responses and establish persistent infection.

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